Ship Knowledge——Main equipment accessories of ships (part 1)
A ship in operation must be fitted with a wide variety of equipment. Through the application of these equipments, production operations such as sailing, berthing and unberthing, loading and unloading of ships are completed, and the safety of ships and personnel is ensured. The main equipment of the ship includes power equipment, manipulation equipment, loading and unloading equipment and safety equipment.
Ship power equipment
A ship must be equipped with a complete set of power plants and auxiliary equipment that meet the requirements of the regulations before sailing on water. These power units include ship main power units, auxiliary power units, steam boilers, refrigeration and air conditioning units, compressed air units, marine pumps and piping systems, water making units and automation systems. This electromechanical power equipment is mainly concentrated in the engine room, and the technical department that specializes in managing these equipment is the engine department.
- Main power device The main power unit of the ship, also known as the "main engine", is the heart of the ship and the most important part of the ship's power equipment, mainly including:
(1)Ship main engine
A common name for an engine that can generate propulsion power for a ship, including various pumps, heat exchangers, piping, etc. that serve the main engine. At present, the main engines of merchant ships are mainly marine diesel engines, followed by steam turbines.
The equipment that transmits the power of the main engine to the propeller can not only transmit the power, but also can decelerate and dampen. The boat can also use the transmission equipment to change the rotation direction of the propeller. The transmission equipment is slightly different due to the different types of the main engine. Generally speaking, it is composed of a reducer, a clutch, a coupling, a coupling, a thrust bearing and a ship shaft.
(3)Shafting and thrusters
Among ship propulsion propellers, the propeller is the most widely used, and most of them use fixed or adjustable pitch propellers; ship shafting is a device that transmits the power from the main engine to the propeller. The main engine of the ship drives the propeller to rotate through the transmission device and the shaft system to generate thrust, which overcomes the resistance of the hull to make the ship move forward or backward.
2. Auxiliary power device
Ship auxiliary power unit, also known as "auxiliary engine", refers to the generator on board, which provides electrical energy for the ship in normal and emergency situations. The marine power station is composed of electromechanical equipment such as engine set and switchboard.
The motive power is mainly provided by diesel engines. Based on the safety and reliability of the ship and the simplicity of maintenance and management, large ships are equipped with no less than two diesel generators of the same type, and multiple generators can generate electricity at the same time as needed.
In order to save energy, some ships can use the drive shaft of the main engine to drive the generator to generate electricity (shaft generator) or use the waste heat of the main exhaust gas to generate low-pressure steam to drive the steam turbine generator set to generate electricity.
It distributes, controls, transmits, transforms, and transforms electricity to ensure the needs of each electric drive equipment and the life, lighting, signal and communication of the whole ship.
3. Steam boiler
On ships with diesel engines as the main engine, steam boilers are required, which are composed of auxiliary oil-fired boilers and exhaust gas boilers, as well as piping and equipment for their supporting services. The auxiliary oil-fired boiler is to supply the needs of some auxiliary steam on board, such as heating fuel oil and lubricating oil, heating, domestic water, kitchen, boiling water, etc., and to meet the needs of some auxiliary engine steam. In order to save energy, the exhaust gas boiler uses the waste heat in the exhaust of the diesel engine to generate steam, and only the auxiliary oil-fired boiler is used when berthing.
4.Refrigeration and air conditioning units
Ships are equipped with refrigeration devices to refrigerate transported goods, refrigerate a certain amount of food, and improve the living and working conditions of crew and passengers. The task of the air conditioning device is to maintain the climatic conditions suitable for people's work and life in the cabin, which includes cooling and dehumidification in summer, heating and humidification in winter, and ventilation throughout the year. Its main equipment includes refrigeration compressors, evaporators, condensers, air conditioners and their automation control components.
5.Compressed air device
Generally, there are multiple air compressors and multiple compressed air cylinders on the ship to supply the compressed air required for the coexistence of the whole ship, such as starting the main and auxiliary diesel engines with compressed air; Provide air source. Its main equipments include air compressors, gas storage cylinders, piping systems and safety and control components.
6.Marine Pumps and Piping Systems
In order to pump seawater, fresh water, fuel oil, lubricating oil and other liquids on the ship, a certain number and different types of pumps are required. Generally, bilge water pumps, fuel and lubricating oil transfer pumps, boiler feed water pumps, cooling water pumps, ballast water pumps, sanitary water pumps and other main oil pumps and water pumps must be installed in the engine room. Connected with the pump, pipelines for various purposes are set up on the ship, which can be divided into:
(1) Power system
The piping system for the safe and continuous operation of the main and auxiliary machines. There are piping systems for fuel oil, lubricating oil, sea water and fresh water, steam, and compressed air.
(2) Ship system
Piping systems for ship navigation, ship safety and personnel life. Such as ballast, bilge water, fire fighting, sanitation, ventilation (air conditioning) and domestic water piping systems.
7. Water making device
A water generator, also known as a water generator, is a device that heats seawater under vacuum to generate steam, and then condenses the steam into fresh water.
Stay tuned for the second part of Ship Knowledge——Main equipment accessories of ships .....